Is it possible for people, and even for a whole society, to lose faith in God? ... [If] it happens, [it is] not primarily because something they used to think existed does not after all exist, but because the available language about God has been allowed to become too narrow, stale and spiritually obsolete ... the work of creative religious personalities is continually to enrich, to enlarge and sometimes to purge the available stock of religious symbols and idioms ... (The Sea of Faith, 1984)



... people of different periods and cultures differ very widely; in some cases so widely that accounts of the nature and relations of God, men and the world put forward in one culture may be unacceptable, as they stand, in a different culture ... a situation of this sort has arisen ... at about the end of the eighteenth century a cultural revolution of such proportions broke out that it separates our age sharply from all ages that went before (The Use and Abuse of the Bible, 1976)

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Alphabetical order

These brief summaries are intended only as introductions. The hope is that the reader will get an overall, more general view of the period covered than is usually dealt with. More detail is readily available online for those who want it. Useful books are Fifty Thinkers Who Shaped the Modern World by Stephen Trombley (Atlantic Books 2012) and The Modern Mind by Peter Watson (Weidenfeld and Nicolson 2000).

Hans Urs von Balthasar (1905-1988)
K Barth (1886-1965)
N Berdyaev (1874-1948)
H Bergson (1859-1941)
D Bonhoeffer ((1906-1945)
E Brunner (1899-1966)
R Bultmann (1884-1976)
Y Congar (1905-95)
J Dewey (1859-1952)
C H Dodd (1884-1973)
L Feuerbach (1804-72)
J G Frazer (1854-1941)
A von Harnack (1851-1930)
G W F Hegel (1770-1831)
J G Herder (1744-1803)
F von Hugel (1852-1925)
E Husserl (1859-1938)
W James (1842-1910)
E Jungel (1934 - )
I Kant (1724-1804)
S Kierkegaard (1813-1815)
T Kuhn (1922-1996)
H Kung (1928- )
G E Lessing (1729-81)
H de Lubac (1896-1991)
J Moltmann (1926-)
G E Moore (1873-1958)
Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971)
Richard Niebuhr (1894-1962)
F Nietzsche (1844-1900)
R Otto (1869-1937)
W Pannenberg (1928-2014)
K Rahner (1904-1984)
H S Reimarus (1694-1768)
G Ryle (1900-1976)
E Schillebeeckx (1914-2009)
F D E Schleiermacher (1768-1834)
A Schweitzer (1875-1965)
D F Strauss (1808-74)
P Tillich (1886-1965)
E Troeltsch (1865-1923)
A N Whitehead (1861-1947)
M Wiles (1929-2005)
Note: These descriptions draw on :
Christian Theology
, AE McGrath, Blackwell, 1994
The Christian Theology Reader
, AE McGrath, Blackwell, 1996
The Modern Theologians,
Volumes I & II, DF Ford, Blackwell, 1997 
The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
, OUP, 1971
Guide to the Debate about God
, D Jenkins, Lutterworth, 1966
The Roots of Radical Theology
, JC Cooper, Hodder, 1968
Religious Thought in the 19th Century, BMG Reardon, CUP, 1966
The End of the Line?, JHS Kent, SCM Press Ltd, 1982
History of Western Philosophy,
Bertrand Russell, 1946
Christian Faith at the Crossroads, L Geering, 2001
A New Dictionary of Christian Theology, Richardson & Bowden, SCM, 1983
The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ed. Paul Edward, Collier & Macmillan, 1967
Contemporary Religious Thinkers, Ed. John Macquarrie, SCM, 1968
Twentieth-Century Religious Thought, John Macquarrie, SCM, 1963
Readings in the Philosophy of Religion, BA Brody, Prentice-Hall, 1974
A Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Quinn & Taliafero, Blackwell, 1999
A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, Newton-Smith, Blackwell, 2000
God, Humanity and the Cosmos, Ed. C Southgate, T&T Clark, 1999
The Quest for the Historical Jesus, Albert Schweitzer, Trans W Montgomery
  & F C Burkitt, Adam & Charles Black, 1910
A Hundred Years of Philosophy, John Passmore, Duckworth & Co, 1966
The Blackwell Companion to Modern Theology, 2004
Zeno and the Tortoise, Nicholas Fearn, Atlantic Books, 2001
original works and other sources.